Itinéraire de Purchase

 

   Itinéraire versifié d'un pèlerin anglais, publié par Samuel Purchas en 1625 dans "Purchas his Pilgrimes", d'après un manuscrit de la bibliothèque de Sir Robert Cottons, datant de la fin du 14° siècle (ou 1425 ?).

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  Here beginneth the way that is marked, and made with Mount Joiez from the Lond of Engelond unto Sent Jamez in Galis, and from thennez to Rome, and from Thennez to Jerusalem: and so againe into Engelond, and the namez of all the Citeez be their waie, and the manner of her governaunce, and namez of her silver that they use be alle these waies.

 

In the Name of the Fader that seteez in trone,

And of Jhu his oonly blesset Sone,

And of the Holy Gost, this blesset Trinete,

And also of our Ladie S. Marie:

And of all the Seintez of the Court of Heven.

I make this mynde wit milde Steven:

Which waye I went I schall you telle,

And how be the waie I dide dwelle.

Ferst to Plummouth to see went I,

And landet in the Trade of Bretany,

There we rested daies too,

And thrugh the Race then did we go

To Burdewez, to that faire Citee:

And there was I daies thre.

And so from thennez to Bayon,

For so the that is a faire toune.

And from thennez to Petypont St. Jenouhe,

The ferst toune of Naveron, sicurly:

Up in a hee hull hit is faire sette,

And ther men schall make her tribett,

For every pice of Gold trust me well,

Thou schalt swere upon the Evangele:

And there Jakkez ferst most thou have,

And thee lust thy Gold to save.

Wymmenz araie upon there heved,

Like to Myterez they ben wheed:

A raie Mantell they were upon

And foule wymmen mony oon.

Then to the Dale of Rouncevale hit is the waie,

A derk passage I der well saie:

Witelez there ben full necessary,

For in that passage my mouthe was dry.

Beyond the hull upon hee,

Is a Mynster of our Ladee:

Of Chanounez of the Order of St. Austyn,

And the well of Rouland, and Oliver therein.

From thennez even to Pampylyon,

The chef Citie of the Reme of Naveron:

A faire Cite and a large,

Thereto commeth bothe Bote and Barge.

And from thennez to the toune of Keer,

Is xxx. miles long, and hongery heer.

Then to the Gruon in Spanye,

That is the last toune certaine,

Of the Realme of Naveron:

And then into Spanye feare ye schon,

Jakkez ben ther of little prise:

For there beginneth the Marvedisez.

Alle is brasse, silver is none In,

And the Grote of Spayne is silver fyn.

iiii. score for a Coron schal thou have,

Of the Marvedise of master and knave.

Then from the Grune to Sent Dominico

Thou hast tenn long miles for to go.

And from thennez to Grunneole,

Much pyn men ther thoole.

Hit ston upon a hull on hyy,

And Jewez ben Lordez of all that contray.

Ther most thou tribute make or thou passe,

For alle thi gud bothe mor and lasse:

Of that tribute they be full fayn;

For thei hyeer hit of the King of Spayne.

From thennez thou most to Pount Roie,

That passage ther hit kepeth a boie:

A gud contraie, and evell wyn,

And witelez ther ben bothe gud and fyn.

And so forthe to Pount Paradise.

At that passage thou most oaie thriez.

And so forthe from thennez to Borkez that citee,

A faire toune and a muche sicurly.

And from thennez to Hospitall de Reyne,

To passe that River thou schalt be fayne.

And so forthe to Sent Antony:

And ever ther gothe the Marvedy.

From thennez even to the citie of Lyones:

Betweene hem ben mony praty tounez.

In that cite ther schalt thou paie

Passage or thou goe awaie.

By younde the Brugge on thi right hand,

To Sent Salvator the waie is liggand,

Where ii. pottez may thou se,

In the wiche water turnet to wyn

... at Architriclyne.

And mony other reliquez ben there,

But the mountez ben wonder he, and fere.

Wymmen in that Land use no vullen,

But alle in lether be thei wounden:

And her hevedez wonderly ben trust,

Standing in her forhemed as a crest,

In rowld clouthez lappet alle be forn

Like to the prikke of a N'unicorn.

And men have douhelettez full schert,

Bare legget and light to stert.

A Knight, aboie wit out hose,

A sqwyer also thei schull not lose:

A Knave bere iii. dartez in his hand

And so thei schull go walkand:

Here wyn is thecke as any blode,

And that wull make men wode.

Bedding ther is nothing faire,

Mony pilgrimez hit doth apaire:

Tabelez use thei non of to ete,

But on the bare flore they make her sete:

And so they sitte alle infere,

As in Irlande the same manere.

Then from the citee of Lyonz so fre,

On thi lyft hand the waie schalt thou see,

At that Brugge that I of have saide,

Over an heethe to Astergo is layde.

That is a cite and faire is sette,

There the gret mountaines togeder he mette:

And so forthe to Villa Frank schalt thou go,

A faire countraye, and vinez also.

The Raspis groeth ther in the waie.

Yf thee lust thou maie asaie.

From thennez a deepe dale schalt thou have,

Up unto the Mount of Fave:

He huIlez, and of the Spanyse see a cry:

That noyse is full grevose pardy.

And so forth even to Sent Jamez,

Alle waie Pylgrimez suche havez,

And then to Mount nostre Dame,

The Prior ther hath muche schame.

And then so forthe to Luaon,

Other Villages ther be mony oon.

And then to Sent Jamez that holy place;

There maie thou fynde full faire grace.

On this side the toune milez too,

By a Chappell schalt thou go:

Upon a hull hit stoneez on hee,

Wher Sent Jamez ferst schalt thou see,

A Mount Joie, mony stonez there ate,

And iiii. pilerez of ston of gret astate:

A C. daiez of pardon there may thou have

At that Chappell, and thou hit crave.

Then at Sent Jamez wit in that place.

To telle the pardon hit askes space.

Hit is a gret Mynstor, large, and long,

Of the hold begging hit is strong:

Glason windowez there are but few,

Wit in the Mynstor in nowther rew:

Vii. Cardinalez chosen there be,

For Confessourez, that is verry,

And have plaine power fully to here, an

And penaunce to yef in alle manere:

And to assoyle the of alle thing,

That is the Popys graunting.

Now of the pardon telle I shall

In what place thou maie it calle:

At the Northe side of that place,

There is pardon and muche faire grace.

In the Chappell on the rizt hand among the guest,

iii. C. daiez of pardon thou havest.

Forthermore at the hee autere

A iii. daiez alle time in the yere.

Under the hee autere lithe Sent Jame

The table in the Quere telleth the name:

At alle the auterez so by and by,

xl. daiez to pardon is granted to the.

At the iii. derrez benethe the Quere,

Is plenor remission onez in the yere:

And at alle tymes xl. daies,

The table written so hit saies.

On the South side behinde the Derre,

A grete of stone fyndest thou there:

At nine of the Bell the Derre up is sett,

And a Bell rongen a gret fet.

Ther men maie se of Sent Jamez the lesse,

His heed in Gold araied freche:

To the wiche Pilgrymez her offeryng make,

For the more Sent Jamez sake.

And ther by a nauter there is,

Wher Sent Jame, dud Mase yuis,

A iii. daies ther maie thou have,

Of remission, and thou hit crave.

More pardon is nozt in that place

That in that table mynde hase.

Then from thennez to Patrovum,

Wher the Sent londet the ferst toun

iiii. xx. myles longs ofrom Sent Jamez,

Coron ne vin non men there havez.

And then to Pont Wederez went I,

L. long miles; that waie is dry:

Jewes and Sarasynez ben there mony on,

A plentiful contraye as man maie gon.

From thennes a vale faire, and clere,

Where wynez groethe of all manere,

Unto the toun of Corpe Sante,

Alle manere fruyte at man maie haunt.

The See cometh thether at alle tide,

And fisth, and coron on alle side.

Wymmen be araied like to men,

Men maie nouzt well nouther ken:

There thei life un gudely,

Namely men of holy Chirche pardy.

And Bugell flesch is there full rive,

In alle that contraie hit is ther lif:

And Corpe Sant is the last toun.

ln Galise, and stondeth the See upon.

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   On ne trouve pas dans cet itinéraire les noms de toutes les villes du chemin; il en mentionne peu, et elles sont parfois confondues; il présente des confusions qui rendent difficile l'identification de certaines localités; toutefois, on peut facilement le reconstruire dans ses lignes générales.

 

  L'auteur embarque à Plymouth (Plummouth), "the Trade of Bretany", et, traversant le Channel, arrive à Bordeaux (Burdewez), et de là à Bayonne (Bayon) et St Jean Pied de Port (Petypont St. Jenouhe), la première ville de Navarre. Là il faut changer la monnaie et payer péage. Il monte ensuite par le sombre Val Carlos (the Dale of Rouncevale) et visite le monastère de Roncevaux avec les puits de Roland et d'Olivier. Il arrive à Pampelune (Pampylyon), "la capitale du royaume de Navarre, une grande ville et belle", de laquelle il affirme : "Thereto commeth bothe Bote and Barge."

 

  À trente milles de Pampelune est "the toune of Keer", d'identification incertaine, et ensuite Logroño "the Gruon in Spayne", qu'il qualifie ensuite contradictoirement de "the last toune certaine, Of the Realme of Naveron"; en Espagne les jaqueses ne lui servent déjà plus, "parce que là commence le maravedi". De là à Santo Domingo de la Calzada (Sent Dominico), il y a largement dix milles de chemin. Il mentionne ensuite Grunneole (Grañon), et il dit que les juifs sont maîtres de toute cette région et qu'il faut leur payer tribut pour passer. Il n'est pas facile d'identifier les deux ponts Pount Roie et pount Paradise, qu'il trouve avant d'arriver à Burgos (Borkez), une ville belle et très bien défendue (A faire toune and a muche sicurly).

 

  L' Hospitall de Reyne et de Sen Antony, les deux seules localités qu'il mentionne entre Burgos et Leon (Lyones), sont certainement el Hospital del Rey et el Hospital de San Anton, deux kilomètres avant d'arriver à Castrojeriz. Passé le pont, à droite, est le chemin pour Oviedo (Sent Salvator), où on peut voir deux des vases dans lesquels fut changée l'eau en vin aux Noces de Cana, et beaucoup d'autres reliques. Il décrit ensuite la tenue et les coutumes des gens des Asturies, et au pont de Leon, il prend à nouveau le chemin pour arriver à Astorga (Astergo).

 

  De là à Villafranca del Bierzo (Ville Frank), on trouve de grandes montagnes, Raspis (Rabanal) et Mount of Fave (mont de La Faba - Cebrero). Bien qu'il mentionne ce dernier, il ne semble pas qu'il y monte, puisqu'après un Mount nostre Dame on rencontre Lugo (Luaon), et sans plus qu'une allusion vague à plusieurs autres villages (Other Villages ther be mony oon), finalement, Santiago (Sent Jamez that holy place). Deux milles avant l'arrivée, on passe par une chapelle sur une colline, depuis laquelle on voit Santiago pour la première fois. C'est el monte del Gozo (mount Joie), où il y a beaucoup de pierres et quatre piliers de pierre de grande hauteur, et on peut gagner cent jours de pardon. En peu de mots il décrit la cathédrale :

 

Hit is a gret Mynstor, large, and long,

Of the hold begging hit is strong

Glason windowez there are but few,

Wit in the Mynstor in nowther rew.

 

  Sa principale préoccupation est de détailler les différentes indulgences qui peuvent être gagnées dans les différentes chapelles. Ensuite il va à à Padron (Patrovum), "la première ville où débarqua Saint Jacques, à vingt-quatre milles de Compostelle, et de là à Pontevedra (Pont Wederez), à cinquante milles, où il y a beaucoup de juifs et de sarrazins. De Pontevedra, "'une vallée belle et large, pleine de vignes, il arrive à la ville de Corpe Sante, la dernière de Galice, au bord de la mer, sans doute Camposancos, avec laquelle termine son itinéraire.

     

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                                                                       04/06/2010

delhommeb at wanadoo.fr